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- NAS Panel – What I'll Be Looking For « Climate Audit
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None of the statisticians on the panel tried to pin Mann down on this — a passivity that I found very strange and unsatisfactory. The previous day we had discussed this very question and provided conclusive evidence to the committee that Mann did calculate the verification r2 statistic. The entire issue of verification statistics was a tar baby for them to start with, much complicated by "that would be a solly and incorrect thing to do".
Will they dodge the question totally? Confidence intervals came up in two different ways. Cuffey asked every presenter whether they could estimate the temperature years ago to within half a degree. Other than Mann, they all said no. Confidence intervals also came up in a more technical context. We strongly criticized the Hockey Team methodology of estimating confidence intervals based on calibration period residuals, rather than verification period residuals, and asked the panel to declare against using calibration period residuals.
So there are two aspects of confidence intervals to keep an eye on. Ralph Ciccerone of NAS must have winced. Procedures for selecting proxies are one of the big issues in multiproxy studies as current methods seem arbitrary at best and biased at worst. The Barton Committee asked Mann et al to describe their selection procedures, but received an unhelpful answer. In a follow-up to our presentation, we submitted a graph with a high MWP from picking apples instead of cherries — merely to illustrate the impact of arbitrary selections.
The uncertainty of this interpretation needs to be squarely addressed by the panel. Other Uncertainties It would be nice if the panel listed all the various identified uncertainties with proxies: non-normality especially with Moberg and its impacts; for tree rings, altitude changes, "modern sample bias", etc.
Or if it produces a "two-handed report" — on the one hand, … on the other hand,… as rumors suggest? This would re-open the door for the House committees and be rather an embarrassment for the Boehlert committee, which sponsored the NAS panel, and also raise questions about how NAS selected specialties to be represented on the panel.
If this happens, then NAS itself should answer some questions about panel composition. We pointed out the absence of replication specialists, the absence of statisticians with exactly appropriate sub-speciality expertise the two statistical panelists being more frerquency-domain types. References: WSJ l including the wonderful Mann quotatoin: "Giving them the algorithm would be giving in to the intimidation tactics that these people are engaged in," he says.
This is a great post. Much more tightly organized than your typical. Reads as if you put specific effort into it, perhaps thinking that NAS would read this? But the report is written, no?
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I thought they were outstanding in a variety of regards. In addition to addressing key potential NAS panel issues, they also served as excellent primers on several topics, and neatly summarized the relevant debate on other topics. WRT embarassing the Boehlert committee, they may not feel that to be too risky, now that Boehlert will be leaving the House at the end of the year. Following the story in the mass media MM was impossible.
I was unaware such an important report was due today. I know how the results will be handled in the MM: trumpet any findings which support GW; and, igore everything else. It will be fascinating to see how this reads then plays out. A two-handed report? I would have thought that this brings Sen. Why am I reminded of the final game in the film Slapshot? Of course, the next question is what is happening with the team of statisticians that Rep. Barton has got working on this issue? Steve, I think you and the Representative are up against an old-boy club, and in my experience there are few groups as viscous as academics.
They defend their own. What I, and think everyone, want to see is the truth, whatever that truth is. If the truth supports Mann, fantastic. If the truth refutes Mann, fantastic. The goal is to answer nothing and tire readers out, so that the questions die. If the Democrats take control this fall, then the probe will likely fade away. I am sorry to be so cynical, and I hope I am dead wrong, but I certainly would not get my hopes up that questions will be answered.
How can you extrapolate the possible carelessness of one group of climate scientists to other climate scientists? Are you suggesting that interpretation of other evidence ice cores etc are similarly flawed? And if so, why? How central is the work of Drs. Mann, Bradley and Hughes to the consensus on the temperature record? In other words, if Mann et al are wrong, does it matter?
They might change public opinion and policy but not the science. The third and fourth points are more troubling. Can you please be more specific about how the methods used in MBH98 have affected later studies? These are really the issues that launched the inquiry. This is a very empirical question. The answer to this question is, of course: no. Will the panel report on replication of the above two MBH claims? This is a one-handed question.
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Replication of MBH99 confidence interval calculations. This was explicitly stated on presentation day by both von Storch and ourselves. Replication of the MBH98 hockey stick to 2 decimal places using reported methods. Expressed this way, the answer is again no. Some aspects of MBH can be replicated in their major features. The remaining anomalies are puzzling and were what I was referring to in the WSJ quote. Replication of a generic spaghetti squiggle in which the MWP proxy index is lower than the modern proxy index, together with lower values in the 17th century.
Will they discuss the non-independence of these spaghetti squiggles? For example, readers of this blog know that the relative MWP-modern relationship in many of these squiggles is not robust to whether the Yamal Substitution or Polar Urals Update is used.
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Will this be reported by the NAS panel? You could blow me over with a feather if they report this. The other Boehlert question is a good question. Other groups may not have been comparably "careless", but their results are still "unaudited". Peer review at journals is a very limited form of due diligence.
Something additional is needed. Secondly, you make a distinction between "PR claims" and "science". I sometimes compare what I do to being a pre-Iraq War analyst considering aluminum tubes who says — you know, sometimes an aluminum tube is just an aluminum tube and not evidence of WMD. But it means that those other grounds have to be themselves analyzed closely.
Within the little world of year multiproxy studies, every subsequent study refers to MBH and is influenced by it. Many of them have a knife-edge balance between the MWP index and the modern index — just enough to say that the modern index is the highest in years, but very vulnerable to very slight accounting problems. So if the HS studies fall, you have to re-examine all the detection and attribution studies relying on proxy results and independently assess the extent of the potential damage. The write-up above is a very good summary of those points, but Steve has also neatly brought out the issue that competing sets of questions stood behind the NAS panel.
It was agreed that we could briefly present answers to those questions but not dwell on them, and instead focus on the NAS issues. So even if the terms were revised later, on the day of the panel itself they did not gather input on the Boehlert questions, except reluctantly and, apparently, without the intention of delivering answers to them. So it would be very odd if the NAS report tomorrow actually attempts to answer the Boehlert questions.
But whether they get reflected in the report is another matter. David, Assuming, for the sake of argument, that the earth is warming, one then must ask: is this a problem? We know that climate is not static, so what we need to determine is whether the current trend is unusual. So the core question becomes: what is the normal climatic global temperature variation? All these past temperature reconstructions are attempting to answer this core question. But what if Mann and his cohorts are wrong? What if their science is sloppy and unsupportable? And here in the US or California where I live it also influences our childrens science classes they are required to inform the children, and not necessarily even discuss it!
In the signal detection literature, the regression variables are rescaled using GCM model-generated estimates of natural variability. To the extent modelers have one eye fixed on pre-industrial paleoclimate reconstructions to judge the GCM natural variability outputs, MBH will be influential there as well, even when not directly cited. Some of the paleo papers include simple signal detection exercizes, including MBH98 itself as well as work by Crowley and Hegerl. The IPCC boasts that its reports represent a scientific consensus, based on journal peer review and expert panel peer review.
RE: 15 — In many ways, we here in California are already getting a strong taste of what the rest of the world may face, if, instead of answering all of the above questions as well as a number of other, purely scientific ones we globally rush headlong into tactics and actions based on the presumption that the future according to Mann et al is a reasonable representation. Even in Europe, there are things that await, that we are already well into — for example, a power grid mainly reliant on natural gas and hydroelectricity, topped off by wind power and only a miniscule nuclear component Germany is evolving to be the closest to this model.
The hybrid craze has taken off and as a result, there is little incentive to actually work on things like efficiency in classical gasoline only cars or bio diesel. This is going to be interesting. This could be seen in a chart in the first IPCC report. More generally, I think that the majority of scientists tend to be fairly specialised in their own field. I suspect that most working scientists probably do not have any better understanding of the statistical details of multiproxy reconstructions than does the average intelligent person watching the news.
The main stream media and the eco-groovy types never seem to provide that part of the senerio, just all gloom and doom. I think one of the most important issues to focus on is the intentional, unsupportable, unexplained, unabashed, unscientific cherry picking that was necessary to demonstrate a temperature signal from tree rings. This issue, alone, renders all these Hockey Stick studies as junk science. Wonder if anyone has done a Life Cycle Analysis of hybrids. A hell of a lot of CO2 and a lot of pollution goes into making batteries.
They are stuck in a real connundrum here. It would be very politically incorrect for them to just speak straightforward to the science, like they should. RE: 19 — I am unsure about any direct subsidies. However, certainly, since a single driver in a hybrid is allowed to use the HOV lanes during peak commute times, that is certainly a perq. There is even a cute little sticker you put on your bumper to keep the CHP from bothering …. If the panel finds that Steve and Ross are correct on even one substantive issue, this will lend credibility to their ongoing efforts. It is hard to imagine how the panel could reject every argument, no matter what if any predispositions the individual members may have.
But, we shall see. This list includes vehicles as well as solar power for your home. In order to verify the model, you need something to compare to, which is often the hockey sticks themselves. Unfortunately, the climate models suffer not so much from bad science as incomplete science, particularly w. This does not even touch on other variables that are either poorly understood, or flat out improperly implemented. Re s 18 and In addition to the models, there is the slight matter of the numerous direct observations of climate change.
Funny that neither of you mentioned those. The issue is whether there is sufficient confidence to be able to hindcast using proxies. What the NAS panel testimonies has suggested to me is that the answer to this particular question is no. The consequence of such an answer is that it muddies the water a little more. Sure there is observational evidence of a warming in the last 30 years but there is little to hang your hat on as regards showing it as extraordinary. To me, if the report does turn out to be two-handed then all it invites as I suggested earlier is a larger fight without much hope of anything constructive coming out of it.
Funny that this basic standard of science has consistently evaded your grasp. The Boehlert and Barton questions are much like if you were directly dictating them, which is of course making them look good. This criticism of cherrypicking from the biggest group of cherrypickers and liars on the face of the planet. How do you know this to be true?
There is also the slight matter that in the absence of a falsifiably predictive climate theory, the on-going climate changes are indistinguishable from normal variation. The falsification of your little hypothesis would include the need to eliminate the CO2 ppmv level to show normal variation. When the denialists create a model that details this separation, let us know.
Are you able to identify a substantive error Steve or Ross has made? In addition to the models, there is the slight matter of the numerous direct observations of climate change. I think you just proved my point. It is a chaotic system that always changes. That we should observe such changes is a no-brainer. That the climate is in a constant state of flux is beside the point. The point is that using models and proxies we are still not able to predict such changes, let alone attribute them to any specific cause other than normal variation. Tacked on with insults, your continued ability to post is questionable.
Read the site. Steve and Ross have all but proven that the proxy results are indistinguishable from normal statistical variability. I think this could be quite amusing. As you point out, the energy committee asked some very specific questions, and was immediately bawled out by the science committee, who claimed it was their turf… The energy committee have accepted that, and they have given the matter over to science committee. Specifically, question 2 has some concrete questions that can be answered simply and definitively, and it would be astonishing if these issues get swept under the carpet by the energy and science committees.
The clause you quote is not a stand-alone assertion. That nobody is quite the paragon of scientific acumen! Somebody linked here today talking about the high amusement value. That some folks think past climate was stable is a constructed narrative that denialist rubes choose to believe. Can you tell me the winning PowerBall numbers next week? No kidding. And exactly how is a random process evidence of YOUR thesis?
Really now… this analogy is absurd. Oh, yeah, and every major hurricane center the US has stated repeatedly that the increase in the Atlantic is due to a multi-decadal cycle for which we are now seeing a peak. That we have only been able to reliably track hurricanes for 30 years or so must not matter, eh? If I was forced to guess the magnitude, I would guess it will be about what CO2 alone would cause, without positive feedback involving water in its various forms.
I think that is about a 2F rise for a doubling of CO2. I believe mankind has been adjusting to climate change throughout our history, and can cope with this magnitude of rise. I believe that an abrupt reduction in carbon use would do social damage of a greater magnitude than that caused by the 2F temperature rise. I believe that, even with a manageable temperature rise, we should be aggressively looking for alternate energy sources and conservation, regardless of greenhouse concerns.
So, what label applies to me? Hurricanes: See here and here. BTW, could you provide me with a link to a study demonstrating that a natural climate cycle substantially drives hurricane activity in the Atlantic? Drought: See here. Stratosphere temperature: See here. Mid-century cooling aerosols : See here. Antarctic: See here. Happy reading. For your response, if any, actual up-to-date peer-reviewed citations would be appreciated. But I think they will sound some significant cautionary notes. The RC lightweights may spin the note of defense of their clique, but I think in the end, the process is underway to fix the bad science and that this report will facilitate that readjustment.
Re 48, David Smith If you insist. I would call you a generally sensible fellow, who needs to think about energy storage rather than energy sources. Otherwise it looks like you are constructing a strawman. It would help more, though, if you could show how others say this too. Especially scientists.
Yeah, scientists. It would help your case a lot if you could trot out a few current climate scientists who show this you know, people who do climatey stuff for a living. This is, of course, utterly wrong , but you are obviously correct since you comment on this site, so you must mean that the current models cannot verify into the future. After all, what person in their right mind would travel into the future and not bring back winning lottery numbers?
No such physical model exists. You and folks like you are asserting a positive causative claim in the absence of a good predictive physical theory. Most people here have argued the science. On the other hand, your position is not science-based, but an inductive inference. What shall we call your crew, therefore?
Chickenlittleists, perhaps? Do you understand the need for that context, or not? Predictions themselves are a dime-a-dozen. Falsifiable predictions are tough to make, in contrast. By subjecting the theory and models of anthropogenic climate change to the rigors of independent, critical review, the theory and models may be refined to more accurately reflect reality.
Thank you all for replying to my questions in 10, especially Steve in his last paragraph of AGW is obviously an emotional debate, and what I find disturbing about both this blog and RealClimate. I would like to know what are the areas of agreement between the pro and anti AGW camps: 1. Do you agree that the level of CO2 in the atmosphere is higher than it has been for at least , years? Do you agree that the level of CO2 in the atmosphere is rising faster than it has for at least , years? Do you agree that in all likelihood CO2 levels will reach at least ppm by ? Do you agree that much of the observed increase in CO2 is as a result of human activity?
I got a flashy CV too. Maybe more so in some ways than those dudes. Certainly, I have the union card. Steve, should kiss my ass for even talking to him. I judge your game, by how you bring it on the playground, not what your Opie coach back home says. Just look at those guys. No game, no heart, no balls. Pat: au contraire, mon frere. See my highlighted post for another approach to comparing recent and historic variability using statistics VS For me to be concerned about that, I would have to also be convinced that CO2 in those sorts of concentrations ppm is going to cause some kind of a problem.
Of all your questions, the only one I think I know the answer to is 3 and I think the answer is yes. Can you explain what makes you think it is? Re The first 2 points are agreeable. Then you diverge. The third point is based on models which are not perfect. What we have are two similar graphs — one of the temperature increasing and the other of CO2 increasing.
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There is a statistical association linking the two together. What we do not have is enough scientific proof of what is causing the increase in either or the percentage of the increase attributable to natural variation or man-made sources. We also deliver additional components including reference lists, title pages and outlines upon request. Our sample essay writing service is your reliable academic helper.
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It will send you a notification that your order is ready and sent via email. Do not forget do indicate the number of pages, sources, formatting style and other aspects of your assignment. You can use any of the available payment options accessible on our website. Neoconservatism, variant of the political ideology of conservatism that combines features of traditional conservatism with political individualism and a qualified endorsement of free markets.
Neoconservatism arose in the United States in the s among intellectuals who shared a dislike of communism and a disdain for the counterculture of the s, especially its political radicalism and its animus against authority, custom, and tradition. Among their intellectual ancestors neoconservatives count the ancient Greek historian Thucydides for his unblinking realism in military matters and his skepticism toward democracy, as well as Alexis de Tocqueville, the French author of —40 , who described and analyzed both the bright and the bad sides of democracy in the United States.
In its respect for established institutions and practices, neoconservatism resembles the traditional conservatism of the 18th-century Irish statesman Edmund Burke. Neoconservatives, however, tend to pay more attention than traditional conservatives to cultural matters and the mass media—to music, art, literature, theatre, film, and, more recently, television and the Internet—because they believe that a society defines itself and expresses its values through these means. Western and particularly American society, they charge, has become amoral, adrift, and degenerate.
As evidence of the moral corruption of Western culture, they cite violent and sexually explicit films, television programs, and video games, and they point to popular music that is rife with obscenities that have lost their capacity to shock and disgust. Actions once regarded as shameful are now accepted as normal.
For example, most people in the West now consider it perfectly acceptable for unmarried men and women to live together and even to have children. Such degenerate behaviour, say neoconservatives, indicates a broader and deeper cultural crisis afflicting Western civilization. Wilson, for example, traced the crisis to the 18th-century European Enlightenment, which encouraged people to question established authority, to criticize religion, and to reject traditional beliefs. Whatever its source, neoconservatives maintain that this degeneration represents a real and present danger to Western civilization.
People without a sense of something larger than themselves, something transcendent and eternal, are apt to turn to mindless entertainment—including drugs and alcohol—and to act selfishly and irresponsibly. Religion at its best is a kind of social cement, holding families, communities, and countries together.
At its worst, however, religion can be fanatical, intolerant, and divisive, tearing communities apart instead of uniting them. They also believe, however, that it has been pursued to extremes by adherents of modern liberalism, who are bent on banishing religion from public life, resulting in a backlash from religious-right conservatives. Most neoconservatives thus believe that the principle of the separation of church and state, as enshrined in the First Amendment to the U. These trends, they believe, are likely to produce a conservative backlash, such as those that took place in Denmark and the Netherlands, where anti-immigrant political parties became increasingly popular in the s and early s.
As Kristol remarked, capitalism deserves two cheers, not three, because its innovative character produces almost-constant social upheavals and disruptions. Capitalism presupposes a willingness to save, to invest, and to defer gratification; at the same time, through advertising and marketing techniques, it encourages people to indulge themselves, to live on credit, and to pay little heed to the farther future.
Unregulated capitalism, moreover, creates great wealth alongside dire poverty; it richly rewards some people while leaving others behind. And since great disparities of wealth make the wealthy contemptuous of the poor and the poor envious of the rich, capitalism can create conditions that cause class conflict, labour unrest, and political instability. To reduce, though certainly not to eliminate, such disparities, neoconservatives support the graduated income tax, the inheritance tax, the modern At the same time, however, neoconservatives warn that well-intentioned government programs can produce unintended and unfortunate consequences for the people they are meant to help.
More particularly, neoconservatives argue that social welfare programs can and often do create dependency and undermine individual initiative, ambition, and responsibility. Such programs should therefore aim to provide only temporary or short-term assistance.
Nor should the goal of social programs and tax policy be to level the differences between individuals and classes. Neoconservatives claim to favour equality of opportunity, not equality of outcome. While favouring the existence of the welfare state, they also believe that it should be scaled back, because it has become, in their view, too large, too bureaucratic and unwieldy, and too generous. They contend that power—military, economic, or political—that is unused is for all practical purposes wasted.
In domestic policy theirs has been an insistent and influential voice. The military might of the United States should be employed around the world to promote American interests. The all-too-real result of such cynical anti-idealism was another and even bloodier second world war. Thus, idealism, far from being impractical, can produce politically practical and even admirable results. From the s, neoconservative idealism took the form of an assertive and interventionist foreign policy that targeted anti-American regimes and leftist movements abroad.
Meanwhile, communist-led rebel movements in Latin America were crushed with the help of U. Bush administration, neoconservative officials in the Pentagon and the Department of State helped to plan and promote the Critics contend that, for all their purported idealism and their talk about democracy, neoconservatives have been all too willing to prop up pro-American but deeply undemocratic regimes throughout the world.
With respect to domestic policy, neoconservatives are acutely aware of the possible unintended consequences of well-intended programs. But with respect to foreign policy, such skeptical awareness, according to critics, is almost entirely absent. In the months leading up to the Iraq War, for example, neoconservative planners seemed completely unaware that the invasion and occupation of Iraq might produce horrific consequences, such as large-scale sectarian violence and civil war.
Such criticism has led some neoconservatives, such as Fukuyama and Michael Lind, to renounce neoconservatism and to become ardent and outspoken critics. Such criticisms notwithstanding, neoconservatism remains an influential ideology. The practical work is of such a high professional standard that it could be distributed without significant extra effort.
The research makes a significant contribution to the chosen field and is worthy of publication. Extremely strong internal consistency making the project a convincing whole which addresses the original research question. Impressive use of information gathered to support argument. Critical awareness of strengths and limitations Evidence of internal consistency which relates to original question.
Very good use of information gathered to support argument.
NAS Panel – What I'll Be Looking For « Climate Audit
Awareness of strengths and limitations Evidence of internal consistency which relates to original question but with some weaknesses in the integration of different sections. Use of information gathered but with some weaknesses in the integration of evidence. Some awareness of strengths and weaknesses Limited evidence of internal consistency which relates to the original with significant weaknesses in the integration of different sections.
Very limited use of information gathered to sustain the argument with serious weaknesses in the integration of evidence. Limited use of information gathered to sustain the argument with significant weaknesses in the integration of evidence. Osama bin laden is a chief leader of a terrorist network intensely opposed to the United Sates, AL qaeda.
Bin laden formed this powerful militant Islamic group, in , to strengthen the international network he established during the afghan war. Their purposes were the advancement of Islamic transformation throughout the Muslim world and to oppose foreign intervention in the Middle East. Known for his role in authorizing the devastating attacks on Leading up to this most disastrous attack was additional attacks made on the United States as well. Honestly, Initially, I thought that everyone should not have gotten decked out in their moral gear and climbed onto their own personal moral high horse because the U.
I oringinally thought that people should not be indifferent; but to take delight and revel in the situation seems to forget the fact that bin Laden exist in the real world, outside the context of a happy ending movie script. The fact that he even existed, and needed to be killed in the name of justice is a somber fact about reality, a reality that persists after this particular and brief sound bite in time.
I just thought maybe a more meditative, forward-looking sort of reflection about the nature of evil is warranted rather than a collectivized orgy of flag waving. I still believe what I recently mentioned but I adopted a more open minded view of the situation. Certainly, we as an society celebrate in many different ways; We vary in our belifes, and our actions yet we all still share a common ground.
South Korea South Korea, officially known as the Republic of Korea, country in northeastern Asia that occupies the southern portion of the Korean Peninsula. The state of South Korea was established in following the post-World War II partitioning of the peninsula between the occupying forces of the United States in the south and the South Korea's economy, traditionally based on agriculture, has, since the early s, undergone an extraordinarily rapid industrialization; the gross domestic product GDP expanded by more than 9 percent yearly between the s and the early s.
South Korea is bounded on the north by North Korea; on the east by the Sea of Japan; on the southeast and south by the Korea Strait, which separates it from Japan; and on the west by the Yellow Sea. A series of five-year economic plans begun in have concentrated on the development of manufacturing, much of it oriented toward exports.
Economic aid, especially from the United States and Japan, was important to the economic growth of the country, which in the span of a generation grew from one of the world's poorest to a mid-ranking industrial power. In the early s estimated annual national budget figures showed revenues and expenditures balanced at. Labor In the early s the total labor force was estimated at Of this figure, some 15 percent were engaged in agriculture, forestry, and fishing; 33 percent in industry; and 52 percent in services.
The principal labor organization is the Federation of Korean Trade Unions, with a membership of more than 1. With 1. Agricultural methods remain largely traditional and unmechanized. Indian Culture: India is a diverse nation of different religion, culture, tradition, food and living style.
It is mostly famous for its population, film industry, food and inventions. India has so many interesting and amazing facts to boast upon. Home to the Indus valley civilization, the Indian subcontinent is identified by its cultural wealth and trade routes. In the previous report released in , this was expected to happen in And this can be seen by their active involvement in every field from sports to science to entertainment.
Not just science but Indians are very good sportsperson too. The most popular sports in India is cricket which was introduced by the British to not just Indians but the world and it is also a misconception that cricket is the national sports of India. Cricket is the game of the English and it is interesting that they have won only one World cup, that too, a T20 world cup whereas Indians were never defeated in Kabaddi, a game originated in India, and India has won all the kabaddi world cups.
Not just cricket and kabaddi, Indians are very good sportsmen when it comes to badminton, boxing, golf etc. India is renowned for its music, art and dances universally. There are several Indian classical dance forms that have a historical and mythological root which India has introduced the world to viz. A dance, which ever genre it belongs to, is incomplete without music. The Indian states have their own folk music and traditional dance which represents their culture, way of living and history, like Bihugeet of Assam, Garba of Gujarat, Lavani of Maharashtra, Bhajan-Kirtan of Bihar and other North Indian states, Bhavageete of Karnataka, Bhangra of Punjab.
The folk music is related to the festivals, ancient stories. India has its own music which finds its root in the ancient India and has genre consisting of Classical, Folk, Bhajan devotional song , Ghazal, Qawwali etc. The kitchen is adorned with dishes from different states which spreads the aroma and the beauty of each state. You must be familiar with Shahi paneer, Tandoori chicken, Paneer tikka, Butter chicken but there are many lesser known dishes to make you grumpy viz.
India is a multi-lingual, multi-traditional, multi-cultural, multi-functional society which eventually makes her a multi-talented nation. A good trailer gives you the basic premise of the movie, shows you the highlights, and encourages you to want to see more. A good thesis statement will accomplish the same thing. It gives readers an idea of the most important points of an essay, shows the highlights, and makes them want to read more.
It will also help keep you, the writer, from getting lost in a convoluted and directionless argument. Interested in picking up a few more tips about debating issues and perfecting the art of persuasion? Most importantly, a good thesis statement makes a statement. As I explained in the post How to Create a Powerful Argumentative Essay Outline, your claims make up a critical part of building the roadmap to your argument.
This statement is too general and would be nearly impossible for you to defend. Picking a side is pretty much the whole entire point of an argumentative essay. During the course of your essay, you will back each of your claims with well-researched evidence. Learn more about the importance of picking sides by reading the post The Secrets of a Strong Argumentative Essay.
The reader will wonder how the author plans to defend them. Check out these posts: Below are 15 debatable, supportable, and focused thesis statements for you to learn from.
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Feel free to customize them for use in your own argumentative essay. As you read the following examples, be careful not to use these thesis statements word-for-word. Vaccinations against diseases such as polio, rubella, and mumps should be mandatory for all U. Inspired by this sample essay on government surveillance. Government surveillance programs, such as PRISM, should be banned because they invade civil liberties, lead innocent people to suffer unfair punishments, and ultimately fail to protect the citizens that they are designed to safeguard.
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